-- Small beetles that infest wood --
Summary: The term "powderpost" beetle refers to the type of damage done by several different wood-boring beetles. These beetles infest both hardwoods, like oak and ash, and softwoods like pine and fir and produce a fine wood dust as they emerge. Larvae are sometimes called "woodworms".
Woodworm & powderpost beetle identification
Powderpost beetles are potentially the most destructive beetle pests of seasoned wood (termites are more destructive of all wood overall, however). These small, wood-boring insects may damage both hardwoods such as oak, maple, and ash, as well as softwoods like pine, fir, and spruce.
What makes these beetles so potentially damaging is their ability to repeatedly infest relatively dry, seasoned wood over many years and many generations of beetles. There are other wood-boring insects that are less important because they do not infest wood after the first generation which limits their damage potential (see A List of the Wood Damaging Insects for descriptions of these pests).
Some powderpost beetles infest softwoods like pine and fir while others infest hardwoods like oak and ash. Those that infest softwoods tend to be the most damaging because they can weaken buildings when they damage structural wood such as beams. Fortunately, softwood-infesting species are somewhat easier to control. Those species that infest hardwoods cause both cosmetic and structural damage to wood floors, cabinets and furniture and can be more difficult to control (see Damage to Floors, Cabinets and Furniture).
Infestations can often be managed or prevented with relatively low toxicity wood preservative based on sodium borate, such as Timbor or Bora Care, applied to the wood surfaces. In other situations the best approach may be simply to monitor with "watchful waiting" (see How to Treat Wood Boring Beetles to explore these options).
Life cycle of powderpost beetles/woodworms
Wood-boring powderpost beetles spend most of their lives as larvae ("woodworms") in wood where they tunnel in search of the starch and other nutrients they need. Development time varies depending on temperature, moisture and starch content of the wood but can last months to several years, and even longer for some species.
Once they complete development larvae tunnel back to the wood surface where they pupate to adult beetles. Beetles chew the last few millimeters and emerge through round emergence holes pushing out a fine boring dust ahead of them (see Powderpost Beetles and Hardwood Floors for a picture). Adult beetles live only long enough to mate and lay eggs for the next generation. Eggs are laid on unfinished wood because young larvae cannot bore through varnish or paint.
Professional-level pest control supplies are generally not available in home and garden stores but can be found at DoMyOwn, our affiliate.
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